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因果 对比 比较 否定:托福阅读常见逻辑解读

少考生提到在备考托福考试时,发现有不少的托福考试句超出自己的能力范围。对于这些句子,我们需要从语法的角度去完全把握。但是如果是在考试中遇到不能理解的句子时,考生比较偏向于一遍一遍地读句子,最后不但没读懂还浪费了时间,影响下面的答题。下面我们来看看托福阅读中常见四种逻辑关系的解析。

其实长难句在考试中最直接的运用就是考察插入句子题和解释句子题。对于这样的题目,我们在不能读懂句子的情况下,能够把握的就是句子的内在关系,即逻辑。逻辑在解释句子题中的运用尤为重要,以前有学生反映,在考试中其实句子根本就不能读懂,而利用逻辑就能迅速排除选项,从而找到正确的答案。所以说,逻辑是我们托福阅读中的隐形解题帮手,考生们一定要尤为关注。

下面是托福阅读中经常出现的四大逻辑关系,把握了它们就等于掌握了托福阅读解题技巧的一个重要部分。

1.因果关系

因:because, because of, for, as, since, in that, on account of, with

果:so, so that, therefore, thereby, as a result, hence, thus, coequently, accordingly

因果关系除了传统意义上的显性因果表达词外,隐性的因果同样是不可忽略的一个重要部分。

隐性因果:

A 导致(因-果):cause, reason, lead to, give rise to, result in, render, make, let, ask, push, stimulate, ark, ur, fuel, produce, be reoible for

如:The increased presures of expanding population have led to the removal of woody plants so that many cities and tow are surrounded by large areas completely lacking in trees.

在这段话中,有lead to,表示了导致的意思,即结果;而so that 更进一步表示了后面的结果,所以可以充分判定这段话有因果关系的逻辑。

B 由……而来(果-因):result from, derive from, originate from, initiate from, stem from, be reoive to, be attributable to

如:“The extreme serioue of desertification results from the vast areas of land and tremendous numbers of people affected, as well as from the great difficulty of reversing or even slowing the proce.”

在这段话中,根据result from可以推断出有因果关系,那如果是解释句子题时,选项中有因果关系就可以优先考虑。

C 反映,体现(果-因):reflect, present, demotrate, suggest, imply, show This result demotrates that&helli

D 考虑到:given, coidering, in view of, thanks to, according to He succeeded thanks to (in view of) his effort.

E 依赖于:rely on, depend on, resort to, He resorted to books when he had problems.